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精进者的科学学习手册

发布于2020-07-31
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学习
效率
个人成长
读书笔记

本文从两个角度,三个阶段,贯穿实现了26种科学学习的方法。

两个角度:学习者,传授者
三个阶段:
熟悉某个领域
在领域上深耕,建立自己的见解
分享某个领域自己所学的知识

学习者

O时刻观察

通过观察在前期明了重点所在【Q】
中期及时发现问题进行反馈【F】
后期发现自我进步,增强信心【Y】

在现有的学习环境中添加一些观察学习的元素,尝试把观察学习打造成一种风气【N】,与其总是等着别人给出明确的指导
不如学会自己做一名安静的学习者,在观察中进步。

Q问题导向

通过前期的观察选取恰当的目标

在学习开始前先提出一个“导引问题”,让思绪起飞,自由地探索和创新认识到问题的核心与延展性,集中学习注意力,以问题为聚焦的方式把信息聚集为一个相互关联的思维网络,而非零散孤立的事实信息,这个过程能加深理解(S)、增强记忆效果(E)。

W案例学习

根据确定的问题与目标,选择合适的案例进行模仿学习。

观察演示(O)与适当的文字解说(J)相配合形成的参考样例(W),人们就可以学习到行为背后的逻辑基础
参考现成的实际案例来模仿学习,在样例中穿插检验学习效果的小任务(F),与“自我解读”(S)双剑合璧,将刚学到的内容转化为自己可利用的知识

K高效学习


S加深理解

将刚学到的内容用自己的话来表达强调如何、为何来加深理解,把新知识与学过的知识联系起来,转化为自己可利用的知识。


A归纳

1、解释新的事物或观点时,类比成一个熟悉的例子
2、多个类比事例间探索其中共存的深层结构
经过仔细推敲,能够由已知事物出发,自然地构建起通向新事物的桥梁

C类比

关注到的目标特征,然后再根据该特征挑选合适的对比事例,来辨别这些差异。“学习一件事是什么的同时,也要学习它不是什么有助于了解抽象知识的适用范围(J),并通过情景线索来调用合适的知识概念,提升注意细节的精度。


V可视化

转化为自己可利用知识思考过程通过可视化的方式表达和展现出来,通过构建新新、新旧知识因果关系来学习新知识。同时避免不过脑子的走流程与阻碍视觉上寻找规律的过早解读。

G自我生成-制作闪卡

利用一部分线索作为提示来生成目标记忆,使用闪卡从两个方向进行学习,强化是记忆中“,"生成”的部分“将来要回忆什么,现在就练习记忆什么。

E组块记忆

编录信息或把信息存入大脑的“记”巧
准确的阐释相关概念,将信息组块化【把分散的信息联系、组合在一起再进行记忆】,与结构清晰的知识相融合。使新信息与结构清晰的知识关联起来


D刻意练习

组块化-把零散的小块信息组合成大块的信息单元(可参考E)
如果已经正式参与到活动中那精修勤练是一种理想的学习策略。如果还没有那么阅读(P-参与感)将促使人们正式参与到一项活动中。

通过下列四步来实践-Deliberate Practice
选取恰当的目标与任务(O,Q,W)
通过组块化与知识重组大幅提高局部水平,进而带动整体水平显著提升(K,S【A,C】,V,G,E)
建立完善的反馈机制(F,U,R)
劳逸结合(Z,X)
保持充沛的学习动力(Y)

F有效反馈

建立完善的反馈机制,可以有效检验精修勤练的有效性。

关注有“STUN-R”特征的反馈信息
0.创造一个改进的契机或理由
1.用科技实施先进的追踪记录(Specific)
2.及时反馈,既能找到错误地源头,又不影响学习的积极性。(Timely)
3.在无人监督的情况下,建立起一套自我评价标准,学会自己领悟反馈信息。(Understandable)
4.指出任务的具体不足,做到“对事不对人”(Nonthreatening)
5.提供进步过程的成长路线图,帮助塑造一套不断自我反馈、改进提升的思维方式(Revisable)

通过观察自己付出努力所产出的实际结果与目标的差距,进一步做出评估和改进,从而调整、精进自己的表现(U)。

U纠正误解

反馈如果运用得当能强有力地提高学习者的表现,担当大方向调整、进行彻底改造时需要由教学指导来配合、补充,甚至取代反馈。因此在获得反馈的同时要及时的纠正误解

刚开始学习的时候,可以先用一个简单的例子进行类比,随着学习者的理解不断加深,再用更准确的类比例子取而代之。

通过先假设实验结果,再观察实验的真实结果(通常与想象的结果存在差异)留意那些不一致的地方及时进行调整,逐步提升学习者思考问题的精度,纠正错误的旧观念。

R随机奖励

前面的信息型反馈(F)可以反映当前情况与理想目标之间的距离,为下一步行动指明方向。
通过强化型反馈(R)奖励或惩罚的方式可以促进或避免行为的发生

物质奖励在逻辑思维和内在动力沦陷时登场
通过
1.可实现的目标,提供一条循序渐进的上升路径稍微超出现有水平一点点。
2.奖励正确的行为,奖励你希望学习者展现出的行为,随后再慢慢撤去当初的辅助工具与奖励手段。
3.选择恰当的奖励,尽可能忽略那些恼人的不良行为,同时尽可能多的关注、奖励那些优良举动
4.构建诱人的环境,制定“游戏化”概念改造那些不那么吸引人的任务。建立多维度、内外结合的奖励机制
主动设计出一个适合符合自身行为的学习环境。融合归纳类比(A)与有趣游戏情境相结合,让学习高效又有趣。


X妙用兴奋

1.不要沉闷地待着多运动,运动之后人们的表现与学习效果会出现短暂的大幅提升
2.真正参与到社交行为中,比如多与他人交流讨论,或是多在课上提。
3.激发好奇心和兴趣,好奇心激活了大脑中的奖励回路。在好奇心被激发后的窗口期,不管出现的信息相关与否,都会被奖励回路强化记忆。

激动能够促进生理兴奋,从而帮助集中注意力并提升记忆效果。
在讲座上,时不时给学生们提供彼此交流的机会,唤醒大脑激活状态。
一套随机的奖励系统来提高玩家的兴奋感【R】


M动手创作

在适当的学习资源与学习群体的配合下,情境兴趣如果能进化为个人兴趣,那么他/她就会进入创造循环之中,并自然而然地持续提升。

1、让学习工具更容易获取
2、将反馈与借鉴的机会设计到过程之中
3、为目标设定和学习提供充足的资源

H实践体验

通过身体的运动感知帮助学习者获得初体验,激发出好奇心,然后再进一步寻求严谨的文字解释或者数学推导。

在解决问题时运用运动感知来进行思维模拟仿真
思考问题时,常常会不由自主地摆出姿势
这些姿势有时甚至会暴露出人们的感知理解和言语理解上的冲突,即嘴上说一套,手上做一套。

I想象玩耍

作为开展活动,支撑成长进步和提升学习兴趣的有效载体。
即便不能从整体上提升人们的创新力,但至少它能帮着激发创意。


Z睡个好觉

要学好,先睡饱
睡眠让我们恢复精气神,醒来的时候思维会更加敏捷,有助于学习新事物。睡眠能巩固白天的记忆,将其转化为长期记忆。这个过程不只是强化,还能增加我们从记忆中找出潜在规律的概率
聪明地打盹儿
简短的睡15分钟是性价比最高的选择
在小睡之前先来一杯咖啡补充一些能量
15分钟后,咖啡因开始发挥作用之时也正是睡醒之际。

Y激发信心

改变自我归因的方式树立自己能出色完成的信念
1.理解成功路上的崎岖坎坷
2.自我信念不一定确保成功,但是没有信念一定会酿成失败。——阿尔伯特·班杜拉
提高自身的技能水平,从而有更多机会感受自身成功
通过前面的个人学习,感受到学习知识的快乐
再通过后面的团队分享,体会分享的乐趣。


传授者

P参与深入

通过亲身参加一项活动并从中学习促使人们正式参与到一项活动中。

通过参与社群,进行社交迈出参与初期第一步,并在此过程中请教知识渊博的人给予支持,帮助选择合适的学习任务,提供解释说明,点明学习内容背后更大的意义,帮助开辟一条持续学习、深入参与的道路。然后就此转入刻意练习的道路【D】

N规范风气

当进入一个新环境时,用心观察,留意周遭。了解人们约定俗成或明文规定的规则
如果条件允许的话,可以与相关经验丰富的人建立联系并寻求帮助

个人实践中要了解规范的由来和背后的逻辑。例如开头提到的尝试把观察学习打造成一种风气【N】,尝试去了解为什么,会有什么好处,以及怎么做。这远比规则本身有意义

B归属感

整个组织的文化氛围、上下级互动、同事同辈之间的互动等多个层面,从而提升社交关联和归属感

如何通过提高归属感来促进学习
1.改变对问题本质的认知,重新理解自己在社群中的位置,不因短暂的失败而误认为自己不属于这类群体。从积极的角度解读这些模棱两可的情境,避免不小心掉入恶性循环的漩涡之中。
2.关注对整体学习环境和氛围的改进
在组织层面,建立共同的目标、规则和价值观能起到很大的帮助作用(请参考章N)
在学生之中,还可以通过合作式学习、讨论、为共同目标努力等方式进一步提升归属感(请参考L章)

如何培养归属感
依靠自身的力量主动做出一些促进归属感的行为,以多种形式肯定自我价值(参考Y)
借助外部力量在人们难以重树归属感,不断退缩时进行干预

T以教促学

前面讲了在一个不熟悉的领域如何通过参与的方法熟悉这个领域
然后通过刻意练习的方法,不断的在这个领域上深耕,建立自己的见解
最后我们应该通过以教促学的方式去分享自己所学的知识

在这个过程中你将发现自己的不足,提升自身对知识的理解,边教边学、以教促学。对知识间逻辑关系的理解更加深刻

具体做法:
将自身知识融会贯通,形成了完整的知识框架体系,在备课时,充分思考讲解的内容以及相应的合理展现方式,根据课堂情况随机应变,各种知识点被有机地串联在一起,让我们的理解更全面、印象更深刻【E】,在反思中构建的知识,在授课过程中处于兴奋状态,注意力高度集中与意识高度唤醒都有助于学习【X】知己知彼地监督教学过程中出现的漏洞,接收到反馈【F】并及时弥补。【U】

L倾听共享

倾听和共享是协作学习的基石。协作过程中,学习者们一起完成任务、解决问题、共同学习。

独乐乐不如众乐乐(理论上如此)
协作学习5⃣️要素-辅助信息交换
1、共享注意力-保持与他人一致的注意力是一种非常基础的能力,大约在孩子一岁时出现。
2、倾听-别总是忙于表达自己的观点
3、共享-拥有相同的目标,分享自己的想法
4、协调-合作过程中需要类似轮流发言的协调机制。
5、换位思考-透过现象看本质
在合作过程中充分理解他人提供信息的逻辑与动机,思考语言与行动背后人们要传递的信息【S】能帮助人们梳理思路,提炼自己独到的见解。思想的碰撞也不失为一种学习过程。

学会避免冲突,并主动解释自己的想法。通过彼此倾听和共享,融合了各自的观点,创造出了全新的东西。

J适时讲解

帮助学生搜寻、评估和整合不同渠道的信息,让学生构建属于自己的知识在恰当的时机提出恰当的问题让学生亲身实践及时补充知识点或关键问题,确保重点内容全部覆盖。

如何运用适时讲解来促进学习
1.以问题为载体,直击学习内容最核心的部分,将注意力放在即将学习的主题特征上。需要的是解决问题的动力看待问题的角度
2.参与到具体领域的创新学习之中,然后再学习专家们当年原创出的高效方法,了解内容擅长应对的问题和应用场景有机会多多亲身体验,这样才能领悟学习的内容。
3.在自已无法解决问题时,尝试着先去找相关的问题体验一把而不是马上从外界寻求答案

写在文末

学习初期,通过参与达到正式入坑的标准,然后观察自身问题,确定学习方向,结合案例高效学习
学习过程中,通过归纳类比加深理解,把思考的过程可视化,根据自我的理解制作闪卡,组块记忆。接着进行刻意练习,贯穿反馈,纠正误解,奖励强化行为的流程。
学习后期,通过以教促学进行分享,分享的过程中进行适时讲解,了解社群的规则,建立归属感,在分享的过程中不忘倾听,共享知识共同进步。
学习之余,不忘睡个好觉,睡觉是对自己最大的投资。对于不感兴趣的领域通过MHI,激发自身兴趣,有了好奇心那也可以顺利的通过P(参与)进行入坑活动了,经历了上述总总,相信已经建立了信心,觉得Yes I Can(我能行)为下一次的行动坚定了信念

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