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限定词(一):冠词

发布于2021-06-17
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限定词(一):冠词

冠词的位置与读音

the在辅音前读读成[ ð ə],在元音前读读成[ ð i]
a 用于辅音音素(并非辅音字母)开头的名词前
an 用于元音音素(并非元音字母)开头的名词前

冠词的用法

四种泛指的表达模式

  • 不可数名词不加冠词表示泛指;
  • 复数名词不加冠词表示泛指;
  • 单数名词与定冠词the连用可以表示泛指;
    the + 单数名词也可特指,但需要结合上下文语境分析
  • 单数名词与不定冠词a/an连用可以表示泛指;
    “a/an + 单数名词”可以表示泛指,不定冠词a/an的泛指用法指的是某一类事物中任何一个具有代表性的成员,相当于any

特殊:

  • the + 国籍名词:一个国籍、民族的人
  • the + 形容词:表示一类人,是泛指,相当于在形容词的后面省去了people,所以被看做是复数名词,作主语时,谓语要用复数;主要限于用在主语的位置,如果处在其他位置则不表示泛指。

定冠词the的特指用法

情景/文化特指

定冠词the 用于这一类特指,必须依赖于说话者和听者双方共用的知识。

the可表示著名的人或事物
Albert Einstein, the famous physicist. 阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦,著名的物理学家
此处不应用a。但如果断定听者对此人或事物不了解,可用a
Andy Lau, the famous actor. 刘德华,著名的演员(此处用the因为是针对国内大众)
Andy Lau, a famous actor. 刘德华,著名的演员(此处用a因为是针对外国人)

另外一种情况是,在著名的人名或地名前面加the,即结构为“the+专有名词”,此时读[ ð i],用以强调
A: My name is James Bond.
B: What, not the James Bond. 什么,不是那位鼎鼎大名的詹姆斯·邦德吧?

  • 一般常识/较大情景
    对于这样的一般常识,定冠词the所致的对象究竟是什么,对双方来说都是不言而喻的
  • 具体知识
    说话者与听者共有的知识知识局限在一个特定范围内,比如同一个家庭或村庄的成员

上下文共指

上下文共指,指听话者或读者可以根据上下文找到所指。

  • 直接前指:前面说话中已经提供的信息使后文的某个名词短语特指某个事物,既是前指
    第一次提到的单数可数名词前面用不定冠词an和a,这一名词再出现时这要用定冠词the
    I had a banana and an apple. I ate the banana and gave the apple to Clint.
  • 间接前指:所指的对象间接地成为听者知识的一部分。这种知识不是通过直接谈及而获得,而是从已经谈到的事物中推理出来的。此时,在上文中挖往往会提到一个与下文有紧密关系的概念或谈论的话题,然后下文围绕这个话题展开讨论
    John bought a bicycle, but when he rode it one of the wheels came off.
    I read a great novel last week. The imagery was fantastic.
  • 后指,也成为结构特:往往出现在带有后置定语的名词短语中。一般来说,被某个后置定语所修饰的名词前面要用定冠词the
    The brick house on the corner is mine.
    这里的名词短语brick house被介词短语 on the corner修饰
    What makes us different from women of past decades is our range of choices.
    这里的名词women被介词短语fo past decades修饰,但没有用the来限定women
    决定一个名词的前面是否要用the来限定,并不完全是看该名词的后面是否有后置定语修饰,主要还是看这个被后置定语修饰的名词是表一个泛指概念还是特指概念。具体可分成两种情况:如果被后置定语修饰的名词是表达一个没有限制的、广泛的、不可预知的人和事物,此时名词的前面依然不用the来限定;如果被后置定语修饰的名词是表达某个被限定的、特殊的、听者或读者很熟悉或与之相关的人和事,此时需要用the来限定

不定冠词a/an的用法

不定冠词的泛指与非泛指用法

  • 用在主语中,具有泛指功能
    A tiger is a danerous animals.
  • 用在补足语中,表示分类,具有描述功能
    在英语中,单数可数名词在做表语时,通常需要一个冠词。如果用不定冠词a/an,则具有描述的功能,而没有所指的功能
    Bill is an engineer.
    Bill is the engineer who will design the bridge. (这里的the特指要设计桥的人)
  • 用在宾语位置,会产生歧义,即用于定指与不定指意义不同。比如“I read a great book last week.”对于说话者来说是定指,但对于说话者来说是不定指。

关于“特指”、“泛指”、“定指/不定指”则几个概念之间的相互关系:特指是指说话双方来说是定指的;泛指是对说话双方来说都是不定指的。在特指与泛指则两个极端情形之间存在着两个过渡的指代状态,即对于说话者或者听话者某一方来说是定指而对于另外一方是不定指

不定冠词a/an与不可数名词

  • 很多不可数名词与a/an连用,表示“一种”或“一类”
    A cheese that I like is Camembert. 我很喜欢的一种奶酪就是法国卡芒贝尔存产的
  • 对于饮料类的不可数名词,与a/an连用时,表示“一杯”
    I'd like a beer, please. 我要一杯啤酒
  • 有些不可数名词,当它们与a/an连用时,会有特别的意思,或者说意思会发生改变
    比如glass表示“玻璃”这种物质,但a glass则表示“一个玻璃杯”。iron表示“铁”这种物质,但an iron表示“一个电熨斗”

不定冠词a/an与数词one

  • 强调数量“一”时用one
  • 因为one强调数量,所以常用语准确的对照数字
  • 讲故事中用one
  • 表示类指意义的a/an不能换成one
  • 表示度量的a/an不能换成one
  • 表示数量的固定搭配中的a不能换成one

不定冠词a/an与this

在口头叙述中,当说话者想强调某个人、某个地方或某件事,并使他们变得更加生动时,就可以使用this代替a。但应该注意,在正式的口语和书面形式中不能使用这样表达

用与不用冠词的意义区别

对于表示处所或社会机构类的名词,使用冠词the,是强调处所,指的是实际的建筑物或地点;不用冠词the,是强调活动,不是指实际的建筑物或地点,而是指与它们相关的社会事业机构

His mother is in hospital and he has been in the hospital to take care of her.
这里有两个介词短语in hospital和in the hospital,前者是“ 生病住院”的意思, 而后者表示“在医院里”,但不是因为生病,而是因为其他原因, 比如在这里是因为要照顾他妈妈。

其他用冠词的场合

  • 形容词或副词的最高级、序数词,以及only用作形容词后接名词时,它们的前面一般要用the
    the best/only way to cope with the problem.
  • 在乐器、乐团、合唱团及流行音乐团体前加the
    learn the piano
  • 定冠词the与姓连用
    the与姓氏连用,然后要在姓氏的后面添加复数-s
    the Smiths
    表示史密斯夫妇或者史密斯一家(包括孩子)
  • 表示强调时,会用the

其他不用冠词的场合

  • 关于职业、身份或头衔
    表示某人的职业,一般是用不定冠词a/an
    表示独一无二的头衔身份的名词前一般不用冠词,尤其是当它们出现在补足语或同位语的位置上
  • 关于球类、棋类运动
  • 关于其他限定词与冠词
    • 冠词
    • 物主形容词
    • 指示形容词
    • 名词属格
  • 特殊名词
    • nature(自然界)
    • societ(社会)
    • space(太空)
    • man(人类)
    • history(历史)
  • 关于星期
    通常情况下不加冠词
    on+星期几:在星期几那天;每周几 星期+s可表示为“每逢周几”
    如果某个星期几不是以说话时间为参照,而是以上下文中别的时间作为参照,此时就需要用定冠词the来修饰星期
    The last time I saw her was three weeks ago. She was in England for one week. She phoned me on the Wednesday and we met on the Friday. (我上次见到她是在三周前,她在英格兰呆了一个星期。她在那个周三给我打过电话,我们在那个周五见了面)。
    也可用不定冠词a/an修饰表不定指的星期表达
    She left on a Wednesday. (她是在一个周三离开的)
  • 关于四季
    指一般的四季而不是具体指某年的一段时间时,通常不加冠词。但是,如果是特指某一年的某个季节时,就需要加定冠词the
  • 关于昼夜的各段时间
    dawn/ daybreak( 黎明/ 破晓) sunrise( 日出) sunset( 日落) noon( 正午) dusk/ twilight( 黄昏) night( 夜晚) midnight( 午夜)
    以上这些名词尤其是当它们出现在at、by、after、before之后时,往往不加冠词。
    如果是在其他介词之后,或者在其他场合,这些名词前往往要加冠词
    watch the dawn(看黎明到来)The sunshine was splendid(日出很壮观)
    see nothing in the dusk(在黄昏时什么也没看见) wake up in the night(在夜里醒来)
    若是表示特定的某一天的某个时间段,往往用不定冠词,并且用介词on,此时这些名词的前面通常都会有形容词修饰。
    on a frosty Decmber night(在12月份一个寒冷的晚上)
    on a rainy morning (在一个下雨的早晨)
  • 关于进餐
    一般日常惯例的用餐时,通常不加冠词。如果指需要特别提出的某一次用餐,则常用the来强调
    The dinner after his retirement party was quite lavish.(他退休聚会后的晚餐非常豪华丰盛)
    若在三餐名词前有形容词时,则一般加不定冠词,来表示什么样的遗产。
    We often have a big lunch and a nice dinner.
  • 关于交通工具的名词
    接在by之后的交通工具名词,其前面不加冠词 。但若用在介词in或者on后,以及用在动词后,这些名词的前面都须用冠词修饰
    by boat/take the boat; by train/take the train; by plane/be on the plane;
    by bike/take the bike; by bus/ be on the bus; by car/be in the car;
  • 关于通讯工具的名词
    接在by之后通讯工具名词,其前面不加冠词。但是这些名词在其他场合要加冠词
    by radio/a talk on the radio; by telephone/ John is on the telephone
  • 平行结构
    如果两个名词一起放在同一平行结构礼,即使是单数可数名词,也通常不加冠词
    face to face; back to back; hand in hand; arm in arm;
    这样的短语往往具有副词的功能,在句中用作状语,修饰动词。没有冠词,是因为它们基本上失去了名词的主要特性。
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