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动词分类(二):英语的五种基本句型

发布于2021-06-17
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动词分类(二):英语的五种基本句型

句型一:主语+系统词+表语

该句型的谓语动词是系动词。所谓系动词,又叫联系动词,这种动词并不表示具体的动作,而指示起连接主语和后面成分的作用。这种动词后面说接的成分是用来说明主语的特定,表明主语的性质特征的,因此我们称之为主语补足语,或表语

常见的系统词:

be:am、is、are;

look(看起来是)、sound(听起来是)、smell(闻起来是)、taste(尝起来是)、feel(感觉是)、seem(也许是)、appear(似乎是)、become(变为)、turn(转变为)

I am a Webaholic.

The music sounds nice.

用作表语的通常是名词和形容词,副词一般不做表语。

句型二:主语+谓语

该句型的谓语动词是不及物动词,所表示的动作没有作用对象,其本身的意思完整,其后不需带宾语。在字典中表示为vi.

These children are playing. 这些孩子们正在玩耍

He died. 他死了

The sun sets in the west. 太阳从西边落山

该句型下虽不接宾语,但通常会接副词或介词短语来说明动作的方式、地点和时间等等。英文中把这种修饰动作的成为称作状语

They shouted loudly. 他们大声地叫喊起来

He died at home. 他死于家中

区分“主系表”和“主谓状”:

1)He shouted loudly. 他大声地喊

2)He looks happy. 他看起来很开心

在1)中,shouted是不及物动词,副词loudly修饰动词shouted,作状语。在2)中,looks是系动词,没有具体的动作。形容词happy不是修饰looks的,而是补充说明主语he的特征,作表语。

句型三:主语+谓语+宾语

该句型的谓语动词是及物动词,这种动词告诉我们由主语发出的动作所作用的对象是什么,这里所作用的对象就是 我们通常所称的宾语,即宾语是主语动作的承受对象,因此这类动词是带有宾语的。英文中的绝大多数动词都是及物动词,在字典中标为vt.

These children are playing football. 孩子们正在踢皮球

These children are playing. 孩子们正在玩耍

play用作及物动词,后带有football,作不及物动词,无宾语

这种句型的宾语后面也可以接副词或介词短语作状语

I like chatting on the Internet. 我喜欢在网上聊天

He speaks English well. 他英语说得很好

句型四:主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语

该句型的谓语动词是双宾动词,这种动词的后面所接成分有“人”又有“物”。一般来讲,这里的“人”表示动作的接受者,称作间接宾语。“物”表示动作作用的对象,是动作的承受者,称作直接宾语。间接宾语和直接宾语合起来叫做双宾语

Chatting online will bring you a lot of fun. 网上聊天会带给你很多乐趣

He lent me ten yuan. 他借给我10块钱

I will buy you a meal. 我会请你吃顿饭

句型五:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

该句型中的谓语动词是宾补动词,这种动词的后面接宾语,而此宾语的后面又接补充说明宾语的补足语。宾语和宾语补足语结合起来叫做复合宾语

We can call Internet addicts a Webaholic. 我们可以管上网成瘾的人叫网虫

We elected John chairman. 我们推举约翰作为主席

和“主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语”区分“:

​ 在宾语的后面加上be动词,若能构成一个语义通顺的句子,则是补足语。因为宾语与宾语补足语的语义关系就是相当于主语与补足语的关系,即类似一个“主系表”结构。而间接宾语与直接宾语之间就没有这样的语义关系,添上be动词之后,不能构成一个语义通顺的句子

I made John our chairman. => John is our chairman. => chairman是宾语补足语

I made John a cake => John is a coke 语义不通 => 为双宾语结构, a cake是直接宾语

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